Religious factors' impact in the first and second bishops' war (1639-1642)

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Huda Husien Hamza El Ubaidi , Prof. Dr. Haydar Shakir Obaid Essultani


King Charles I ascended the English throne after the death of his father, King James I. At that time people in most were embracing the Catholic faith as a result of the king’s notorious religious politics, which made the people abhor the Protestant faith embraced by King James I. That policy was characterized by the suppression of Catholics, and the prosecution of Protestants who refused Comply with the laws imposed by him. The reign of King Charles I was characterized by relative tolerance with Catholics. Some researchers believe that this policy did not come as a result of his being influenced by his Catholic wife Henrietta Maria, daughter of the French King Henry IV, but rather to achieve personal interests, meaning that the change did not take place for the sake of religious reform, but for the sake of Improving economic and political relations with the French. What confirms this is that he burdened the people, especially the middle class, with taxes, which led to the rebellion of the Scots, and the declaration of war against King Charles I in what was known as the First and Second Bishops


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Huda Husien Hamza El Ubaidi , Prof. Dr. Haydar Shakir Obaid Essultani. (2021). Religious factors’ impact in the first and second bishops’ war (1639-1642). Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(11), 7240–7244.